A pyrophoric metal is one that burns spontaneously in oxygen; I came across this phenomenon as a teenager doing experiments at home. Pyrophoric iron for example is prepared by heating anhydrous iron (II) oxalate in a sealed test tube (i.e. to 600° or higher). When the tube is broken open and the contents released, a shower of sparks forms. Not all metals do this; early group metals such as calcium undergo a different reaction releasing carbon monoxide and forming calcium carbonate and not the metal itself. Here as a prelude to the pyrophoric reaction proper, I take a look at this alternative mechanism using calculations.
Posts Tagged ‘metal’
Tags:Aluminium, calculated free energy barrier, Carbon monoxide, Chemical elements, Chemistry, higher activation energy, Iron, Matter, metal, metal oxalates, Oxide, pyrophoric metal, Pyrophoricity, Reducing agents
Posted in crystal_structure_mining, reaction mechanism | 1 Comment »
Tags:chemical publishing, chemical records, human chemical perception, Matter, metal, Molecule, Nature, search query, search software, Voting
Posted in crystal_structure_mining, Interesting chemistry | 2 Comments »
Here is a third candidate for the C&EN “molecule of the year” vote. This one was shortlisted because it is the first example of a metal-nitrogen complex exhibiting single, double and triple bonds from different nitrogens to the same metal (XUZLUB has a 3D display available at DOI: 10.5517/CC1JYY6M). Since no calculation of its molecular properties was reported, I annotate some here.
- E.P. Beaumier, B.S. Billow, A.K. Singh, S.M. Biros, and A.L. Odom, "A complex with nitrogen single, double, and triple bonds to the same chromium atom: synthesis, structure, and reactivity", Chem. Sci., vol. 7, pp. 2532-2536, 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c5sc04608d
Tags:alkene, alkene-metal complex, alkyne, Bond length, Carbon–carbon bond, Chemical bond, chemical bonding, Cluster chemistry, Conquest structure editor, Coordination complex, data mining, double bond, editor, filled metal orbital, metal, metal-alkene complexes, metal-alkyne complexes, metal-carbon bonds, Pi backbonding, search query, Structural formula, Transition metal alkyne complex
Posted in crystal_structure_mining | No Comments »
Previously, I looked at models of how ammonia could be protonated by water to form ammonium hydroxide. The energetic outcome of my model matched the known equilbrium in water as favouring the unprotonated form (pKb ~4.75). I add here two amines for which R=Me3Si and R=CN. The idea is that the first will assist nitrogen protonation by stabilising the positive centre and the second will act in the opposite sense; an exploration if you like of how one might go about computationally designing a non-steric superbasic amine that becomes predominantly protonated when exposed to water (pKb <1)† and is thus more basic than hydroxide anion in this medium.
Tags:Acid, Acid dissociation constant, Amide, Amine, Ammonia, Ammonium, Bases, City: Cambridge, energy, from non-protic solution, Functional groups, Hydrogen bond, Hydroxide, Lone pair, metal, Nitrile, relative free energy, search query
Posted in General, Interesting chemistry | 2 Comments »
Celebrating Paul Schleyer: searching for hidden treasures in the structures of metallocene complexes.Saturday, April 2nd, 2016
A celebration of the life and work of the great chemist Paul von R. Schleyer was held this week in Erlangen, Germany. There were many fantastic talks given by some great chemists describing fascinating chemistry. Here I highlight the presentation given by Andy Streitwieser on the topic of organolithium chemistry, also a great interest of Schleyer's over the years. I single this talk out since I hope it illustrates why people still get together in person to talk about science.
Tags:Centroid, chemical effect, chemical insights, chemical interpretation, City: Erlangen, Country: Germany, Degree of a continuous mapping, Ferrocene, Hydrogen bond, individual search definition, metal, overall search collection, Streitwieser, terminal H-positions, Torsion, X-ray
Posted in Chemical IT, crystal_structure_mining, Interesting chemistry | 6 Comments »
The upcoming ACS national meeting in San Diego has a CHED (chemical education division) session entitled Implementing Discovery-Based Research Experiences in Undergraduate Chemistry Courses. I had previously explored what I called extreme gauche effects in the molecule F-S-S-F. Here I take this a bit further to see what else can be discovered about molecules containing bonds between group 16 elements (QA= O, S, Se, Te).
An article entitled "Four Decades of the Chemistry of Planar Hypercoordinate Compounds" was recently reviewed by Steve Bacharach on his blog, where you can also see comments. Given the recent crystallographic themes here, I thought I might try a search of the CSD (Cambridge structure database) to see whether anything interesting might emerge for tetracoordinate carbon.
- L. Yang, E. Ganz, Z. Chen, Z. Wang, and P.V.R. Schleyer, "Four Decades of the Chemistry of Planar Hypercoordinate Compounds", Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 54, pp. 9468-9501, 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.201410407
Tags:Angle, Cambridge, chemical bonding, Cycloalkane, Cyclopropane, HTML, HTML element, Ligand, metal, search definition, search results, search software, Steve Bacharach
Posted in Chemical IT, crystal_structure_mining | No Comments »
The reduction of cinnamaldehyde by lithium aluminium hydride (LAH) was reported in a classic series of experiments,, dating from 1947-8. The reaction was first introduced into the organic chemistry laboratories here at Imperial College decades ago, vanished for a short period, and has recently been reintroduced again.‡ The experiment is really simple in concept; add LAH to cinnamaldehyde and you get just reduction of the carbonyl group; invert the order of addition and you additionally get reduction of the double bond. Here I investigate the mechanism of these reductions using computation (ωB97XD/6-311+G(d,p)/SCRF=diethyl ether).
- R.F. Nystrom, and W.G. Brown, "Reduction of Organic Compounds by Lithium Aluminum Hydride. I. Aldehydes, Ketones, Esters, Acid Chlorides and Acid Anhydrides", Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 69, pp. 1197-1199, 1947. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja01197a060
- R.F. Nystrom, and W.G. Brown, "Reduction of Organic Compounds by Lithium Aluminum Hydride. II. Carboxylic Acids", Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 69, pp. 2548-2549, 1947. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja01202a082
- F.A. Hochstein, and W.G. Brown, "Addition of Lithium Aluminum Hydride to Double Bonds", Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 70, pp. 3484-3486, 1948. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja01190a082
Tags:Al-H-Li bridge, dihydrocinnamyl alcohol reduction product, free energy, Imperial College, independent researcher, low energy escape route, lower energy alternative, metal, pence
Posted in reaction mechanism | 5 Comments »