I noted previously that some 8-ring cyclic compounds could exist in either a planar-aromatic or a non-planar-non-aromatic mode, the mode being determined by apparently quite small changes in a ring substituent. Hunting for other examples of such chemistry on the edge, I did a search of the Cambridge crystal database for metal sulfides.
Posts Tagged ‘metal’
C2 (dicarbon) is certainly interesting from a theoretical point of view. Whether or not it can be described as having a quadruple bond has induced much passionate discussion,,,. Its occurrence in space and in flames is also well-known. But does it have what might be called a conventional chemistry? Other highly reactive species (cyclobutadiene is a well-known example) can often be tamed by trapping as a ligand coordinated to a metal and so one might speculate upon how C2 responds to the proximity of a metal. As is noted here, dicarbon as a ligand has been known a long time as part of what is referred to as carbide chemistry. In this regard it is thought of as the di-anion, C22- (and isoelectronic therefore with dinitrogen). Thus calcium carbide, but in fact the degree to which the dicarbon can absorb electrons is thought to be wide (as judged by the resulting C-C bond length, see). Here I take a look at just one metal carbide that caught my eye (there are hundreds of others, many no doubt equally interesting!).
- S. Shaik, D. Danovich, W. Wu, P. Su, H.S. Rzepa, and P.C. Hiberty, "Quadruple bonding in C2 and analogous eight-valence electron species", Nature Chemistry, vol. 4, pp. 195-200, 2012. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nchem.1263
- S. Shaik, H.S. Rzepa, and R. Hoffmann, "One Molecule, Two Atoms, Three Views, Four Bonds?", Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 52, pp. 3020-3033, 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.201208206
- G. Frenking, and M. Hermann, "Critical Comments on “One Molecule, Two Atoms, Three Views, Four Bonds?”", Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 52, pp. 5922-5925, 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.201301485
- D. Danovich, S. Shaik, H.S. Rzepa, and R. Hoffmann, "A Response to the Critical Comments on “One Molecule, Two Atoms, Three Views, Four Bonds?”", Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 52, pp. 5926-5928, 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.201302350
- E. Dashjav, Y. Prots, G. Kreiner, W. Schnelle, F.R. Wagner, and R. Kniep, "Chemical bonding analysis and properties of La7Os4C9—A new structure type containing C- and C2-units as Os-coordinating ligands", Journal of Solid State Chemistry, vol. 181, pp. 3121-3130, 2008. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jssc.2008.08.005
In the preceding post, I introduced Dewar’s π-complex theory for alkene-metal compounds, outlining the molecular orbital analysis he presented, in which the filled π-MO of the alkene donates into a Ag+ empty metal orbital and back-donation occurs from a filled metal orbital into the alkene π* MO. Here I play a little “what if” game with this scenario to see what one can learn from doing so.
Tags: African Union, alkene-metal compounds, empty metal orbital, energy, filled metal orbital, free energy, Historical, lower energy form, metal
Posted in Hypervalency, Interesting chemistry | 1 Comment »
Tags: alkene-metal interaction, alkene-metal π-complex, cation Ag, Dewar, Dewar's Ag, Historical, metal, metal d-orbitals, naked metal cations, ZTE C79 Cellular Phone
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This is another in the occasional series of “what a neat molecule”. In this case, more of a “what a neat idea”. The s-triazine below, when coordinated to eg ZnI2, forms what is called a metal-organic-framework, or MOF. A recent article shows how such frameworks can be used to help solve a long-standing problem in structure determination, how to get a crystal structure on a compound that does not crystallise on its own.
- Y. Inokuma, S. Yoshioka, J. Ariyoshi, T. Arai, Y. Hitora, K. Takada, S. Matsunaga, K. Rissanen, and M. Fujita, "X-ray analysis on the nanogram to microgram scale using porous complexes", Nature, vol. 495, pp. 461-466, 2013. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature11990
Functionalisation of a (hetero)aromatic ring by selectively (directedly) removing protons using the metal lithium is a relative mechanistic newcomer, compared to the pantheon of knowledge on aromatic electrophilic substitution. Investigating the mechanism using quantum calculations poses some interesting challenges, ones I have not previously discussed on this blog.
If you search e.g. Scifinder for N,O-diphenyl hydroxylamine (RN 24928-98-1) there is just one literature citation, to a 1962 patent. Nothing else; not even a calculation (an increasing proportion of the molecules reported in Chemical Abstracts have now only ever been subjected to calculation, not synthesis). A search of Reaxys also offers only one hit reporting one unsuccessful attempt in 1963 to prepare this compound. Again, nothing else. Yet show this structure to most organic chemists, and I venture to suggest few would immediately predict this (unless they are experts on benzidine rearrangements).‡
- J.R. Cox, and M.F. Dunn, "The chemistry of O,N-diarylhydroxlamines - I", Tetrahedron Letters, vol. 4, pp. 985-989, 1963. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0040-4039(01)90757-9
I previously blogged about anomeric effects involving π electrons as donors, and my post on the conformation of 1,2-difluorethane turned out one of the most popular. Here I thought I would present the results of searching the Cambridge crystal database for examples of the gauche effect. The basic search is defined below
tpap, as it is affectionately known, is a ruthenium-based oxidant of primary alcohols to aldehydes discovered by Griffith and Ley. Whereas ruthenium tetroxide (RuO4) is a voracious oxidant, its radical anion countered by a tetra-propylammonium cation is considered a more moderate animal. In this post, I want to try to use quantum mechanically derived energies as a pathfinder for exploring what might be going on (or a reality-check if you like).
- S.V. Ley, J. Norman, W.P. Griffith, and S.P. Marsden, " Tetrapropylammonium Perruthenate, Pr 4 N + RuO 4 - , TPAP: A Catalytic Oxidant for Organic Synthesis ", Synthesis, vol. 1994, pp. 639-666, 1994. http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-1994-25538
- D.G. Lee, U.A. Spitzer, J. Cleland, and M.E. Olson, "The oxidation of cyclobutanol by ruthenium tetroxide and sodium ruthenate", Canadian Journal of Chemistry, vol. 54, pp. 2124-2126, 1976. http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/v76-304
- D.G. Lee, Z. Wang, and W.D. Chandler, "Autocatalysis during the reduction of tetra-n-propylammonium perruthenate by 2-propanol", The Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol. 57, pp. 3276-3277, 1992. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jo00038a009
Tags: catalysis, energy, free energy, low energy elimination, metal, react freq, Reaction Mechanism, RuO4+ ethanol, triplet state energy, Tutorial material
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The text books say that cyclohexenone A will react with a Grignard reagent by delivery of an alkyl (anion) to the carbon of the carbonyl (1,2-addition) but if dimethyl lithium cuprate is used, a conjugate 1,4-addition proceeds, to give the product B shown below. The standard explanation is that the alkyl copper is a “soft” nucleophile attacking the soft conjugate carbon, whereas the alkyl magnesium is a “hard” nucleophile attacking the hard carbonyl carbon. Is this the best explanation?