Archive for the ‘Interesting chemistry’ Category

A reality-based suggestion for a molecule with a metal M⩸N quadruple bond.

Thursday, May 13th, 2021

I noted in an earlier post the hypothesized example of (CO)3Fe⩸C[1] as exhibiting a carbon to iron quadruple bond and which might have precedent in known five-coordinate metal complexes where one of the ligands is a “carbide” or C ligand. I had previously mooted that the Fe⩸C combination might be replaceable by an isoelectronic Mn⩸N pair which could contain a quadruple bond to the nitrogen. An isoelectronic alternative to FeC could also be FeN+. Here I explore the possibility of realistic candidates for such bonded nitrogen.

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References

  1. A.J. Kalita, S.S. Rohman, C. Kashyap, S.S. Ullah, and A.K. Guha, "Transition metal carbon quadruple bond: viability through single electron transmutation", Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, vol. 22, pp. 24178-24180, 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cp03436c

A suggestion for a molecule with a M⩸C quadruple bond with trigonal metal coordination.

Thursday, May 13th, 2021

The proposed identification of molecules with potential metal to carbon quadruple bonds, in which the metal exhibits trigonal bipyramidal coordination rather than the tetrahedral modes which have been proposed in the literature[1],[2],[3] leads on to asking whether simple trigonal coordination at the metal can also sustain this theme?

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References

  1. A.J. Kalita, S.S. Rohman, C. Kashyap, S.S. Ullah, and A.K. Guha, "Transition metal carbon quadruple bond: viability through single electron transmutation", Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, vol. 22, pp. 24178-24180, 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cp03436c
  2. A.J. Kalita, S.S. Rohman, C. Kashyap, S.S. Ullah, I. Baruah, L.J. Mazumder, P.P. Sahu, and A.K. Guha, "Is a transition metal–silicon quadruple bond viable?", Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, vol. 23, pp. 9660-9662, 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1cp00598g
  3. L.F. Cheung, T. Chen, G.S. Kocheril, W. Chen, J. Czekner, and L. Wang, "Observation of Four-Fold Boron–Metal Bonds in RhB(BO–) and RhB", The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, vol. 11, pp. 659-663, 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jpclett.9b03484

What does a double σ-bond along a bond axis look like?

Monday, May 10th, 2021

Introductory chemistry will tell us that a triple bond between say two carbon atoms comprises just one bond of σ-axial symmetry and two of π-symmetry. Increasingly mentioned nowadays is the possibility of a quadruple bond between carbon and either itself or a transition metal, as discussed in the previous post. Such a bond comprises TWO bonds of σ-axial symmetry. Since most people are unfamiliar with such double bonds and in particular with how that second σ-bond sits with the first, I thought it would be interesting to show such an orbital. This one is a localised orbital 41, selected from the previous post for the molecule (PH3)2(CN)2Mo⩸C. (more…)

Two new reality-based suggestions for molecules with a metal M⩸C quadruple bond.

Saturday, May 8th, 2021

Following from much discussion over the last decade about the nature of C2, a diatomic molecule which some have suggested sustains a quadruple bond between the two carbon atoms, new ideas are now appearing for molecules in which such a bond may also exist between carbon and a transition metal atom. A suggested, albeit hypothetical example was C⩸Fe(CO)3[1]. Iron has a [Ar].3d6.4s2 electronic configuration and if we ionise to balance a C4- ligand, the iron becomes formally FeVI or [Ar].3d4. By adding 14 electrons deriving from the seven “bonds” to the 3d4, including a quadruple count from carbon, the Fe formally completes its 18-electron valence shell, as also found in e.g. Ferrocene.

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References

  1. A.J. Kalita, S.S. Rohman, C. Kashyap, S.S. Ullah, and A.K. Guha, "Transition metal carbon quadruple bond: viability through single electron transmutation", Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, vol. 22, pp. 24178-24180, 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cp03436c

Deltamethrin – a polymorphed insecticide.

Wednesday, March 24th, 2021

Deltamethin is a pyrethroid insecticide for control of malaria which has been used for a little while. Perhaps inevitably, mosquitoes are developing resistance to it. So what could be done about countering this? Well, perhaps surprisingly, form a polymorph![1] These crystal structure isomers are often highly undesirable; thus Ritonavir, which changed its polymorphic form during manufacture to become far less active (due it has to be said to insolubility). Now a polymorph of Deltamethin has been discovered, which when applied as a powder, increases its effectiveness more than 10 times against Anopheles mosquitoes and provides a potentially new affordable malaria control solution for countries that are loosing protection.

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References

  1. J. Yang, B. Erriah, C.T. Hu, E. Reiter, X. Zhu, V. López-Mejías, I.P. Carmona-Sepúlveda, M.D. Ward, and B. Kahr, "A deltamethrin crystal polymorph for more effective malaria control", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 117, pp. 26633-26638, 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2013390117

The small-molecule antiviral compound Molnupiravir: an exploration of its tautomers.

Sunday, March 14th, 2021

For obvious reasons, anti-viral molecules are very much in the news at the moment. Thus Derek Lowe highlights Molnupiravir which is shown as a hydroxylamine, the representation originating from the Wikipedia page on the molecule.

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Non-covalent-interaction (NCI) surfaces for two large annulenes (revisited).

Sunday, February 7th, 2021

The last post addressed the concept of “steric clashes” in a pericyclic reaction transition state as an extension of the time honoured practice of building molecular models to analyse reaction outcomes. A modern computer generated model might express this in terms of a NCI (non-covalent-interaction) surface. A few posts ago, I had looked at some “molecules of the year” for 2020, one of which was a “figure-eight” twisted dodecaporphyrin in which an aspect of the reported[1] geometry had struck me as potentially lacking features due to the so-called non-covalent dispersion or van der Waals attractions. So I am revisiting here by adding the NCI surface for this molecule and one other.

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References

  1. M. Rickhaus, M. Jirasek, L. Tejerina, H. Gotfredsen, M.D. Peeks, R. Haver, H. Jiang, T.D.W. Claridge, and H.L. Anderson, "Global aromaticity at the nanoscale", Nature Chemistry, vol. 12, pp. 236-241, 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41557-019-0398-3

The chemical synthesis of C2: another fascinating twist to the story.

Wednesday, January 20th, 2021

Last May, I wrote an update to the story sparked by the report of the chemical synthesis of C2.[1] This species has a long history of spectroscopic observation in the gas phase, resulting from its generation at high temperatures.[2] The chemical synthesis however was done in solution at ambient or low temperatures, a game-changer as they say. Here I give another update to this unfolding story.

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References

  1. K. Miyamoto, S. Narita, Y. Masumoto, T. Hashishin, T. Osawa, M. Kimura, M. Ochiai, and M. Uchiyama, "Room-temperature chemical synthesis of C2", Nature Communications, vol. 11, 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16025-x
  2. T.W. Schmidt, "The Spectroscopy of C2: A Cosmic Beacon", Accounts of Chemical Research, vol. 54, pp. 481-489, 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.accounts.0c00703

The thermal reactions … took precisely the opposite stereochemical course to that which we had predicted

Wednesday, January 20th, 2021

The quote of the post title comes from R. B. Woodward explaining the genesis of the discovery of what are now known as the Woodward-Hoffmann rules for pericyclic reactions.[1] I first wrote about this in 2012, noting that “for (that) blog, I do not want to investigate the transition states”. Here I take a closer look at this aspect.

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References

  1. R.B. Woodward, and R. Hoffmann, "Stereochemistry of Electrocyclic Reactions", Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 87, pp. 395-397, 1965. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja01080a054

Dispersion attraction effects on the computed geometry of a leminscular dodecaporphyrin.

Friday, January 1st, 2021

In the previous post, I showed the geometries of three large cyclic porphyrins, as part of an article[1] on exploring the aromaticity of large 4n+2 cyclic rings. One of them had been induced into a “figure-eight” or lemniscular conformation, as shown below.

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References

  1. M. Rickhaus, M. Jirasek, L. Tejerina, H. Gotfredsen, M.D. Peeks, R. Haver, H. Jiang, T.D.W. Claridge, and H.L. Anderson, "Global aromaticity at the nanoscale", Nature Chemistry, vol. 12, pp. 236-241, 2020. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41557-019-0398-3