Kinetic isotope effects have become something of a lost art when it comes to exploring reaction mechanisms. But in their heyday they were absolutely critical for establishing the mechanism of the benzidine rearrangement. This classic mechanism proceeds via bisprotonation of diphenyl hydrazine, but what happens next was the crux. Does this species rearrange directly to the C-C coupled intermediate (a concerted [5,5] sigmatropic reaction) or does it instead form a π-complex, as famously first suggested by Michael Dewar [via TS(NN] and only then in a second step [via TS(CC)] form the C-C bond? Here I explore the isotope effects measured and calculated for this exact system.
- H.J. Shine, H. Zmuda, K.H. Park, H. Kwart, A.G. Horgan, and M. Brechbiel, "Benzidine rearrangements. 16. The use of heavy-atom kinetic isotope effects in solving the mechanism of the acid-catalyzed rearrangement of hydrazobenzene. The concerted pathway to benzidine and the nonconcerted pathway to diphenyline", Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 104, pp. 2501-2509, 1982. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ja00373a028
- M. Dewar, and H. McNicoll, "Mechanism of the benzidine rearrangement", Tetrahedron Letters, vol. 1, pp. 22-23, 1959. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0040-4039(01)82765-9