Posts Tagged ‘natural product’

Chiroptical spectroscopy of the natural product Steganone.

Tuesday, February 10th, 2015
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Steganone is an unusual natural product, known for about 40 years now. The assignment of its absolute configurations makes for an interesting, on occasion rather confusing, and perhaps not entirely atypical story. I will start with the modern accepted stereochemical structure of this molecule, which comes in the form of two separately isolable atropisomers.
steganone
The first reported synthesis of this system in 1977 was racemic, and no stereochemistry is shown in the article (structure 2).[1] Three years later an “Asymmetric total synthesis of (-)steganone and revision of its absolute configuration” shows how the then accepted configuration (structure 1 in this article) needs to be revised to the enantiomer shown as structure 12 in the article[2] and matching the above representation. The system has continued to attract interest ever since[3],[4],[5],[6], not least because of the presence of axial chirality in the form of atropisomerism. Thus early on it was shown that the alternative atropisomer, the (aS,R,R) configuration initially emerges out of several syntheses, and has to be converted to the (aR,R,R) configuration by heating[3]. One could easily be fooled by such isomerism!

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References

  1. D. Becker, L.R. Hughes, and R.A. Raphael, "Total synthesis of the antileukaemic lignan (±)-steganacin", J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 1, pp. 1674-1681, 1977. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/P19770001674
  2. J. Robin, O. Gringore, and E. Brown, "Asymmetric total synthesis of the antileukaemic lignan precursor (-)steganone and revision of its absolute configuration", Tetrahedron Letters, vol. 21, pp. 2709-2712, 1980. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0040-4039(00)78586-8
  3. E.R. Larson, and R.A. Raphael, "Synthesis of (–)-steganone", J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 1, pp. 521-525, 1982. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/P19820000521
  4. A. Bradley, W.B. Motherwell, and F. Ujjainwalla, "A concise approach towards the synthesis of steganone analogues", Chemical Communications, pp. 917-918, 1999. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/A900743A
  5. M. Uemura, A. Daimon, and Y. Hayashi, "An asymmetric synthesis of an axially chiral biaryl via an (arene)chromium complex: formal synthesis of (–)-steganone", J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun., vol. 0, pp. 1943-1944, 1995. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/C39950001943
  6. B. Yalcouye, S. Choppin, A. Panossian, F.R. Leroux, and F. Colobert, "A Concise Atroposelective Formal Synthesis of (-)-Steganone", European Journal of Organic Chemistry, vol. 2014, pp. 6285-6294, 2014. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ejoc.201402761

Anatomy of an asymmetric reaction. The Strecker synthesis, part 1.

Monday, May 24th, 2010
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The assembly of a molecule for a purpose has developed into an art form, one arguably (chemists always argue) that is approaching its 100th birthday (DOI: 10.1002/cber.191104403216) celebrating Willstätter’s report of the synthesis of cyclo-octatetraene. Most would agree it reached its most famous achievement with Woodward’s synthesis of quinine (DOI: 10.1021/ja01221a051) in 1944. To start with, the art was in knowing how and in which order to join up all the bonds of a target. The first synthesis in which (relative) stereocontrol of those bonds was the primary objective was reported in 1951 (10.1021/ja01098a039). The art can be taken one step further. It involves control of the absolute stereochemistry, involving making one enantiomer specifically (rather than the mirror image, which of course has the same relative stereochemistry). Nowadays, a synthesis is considered flawed if the enantiomeric excess (of the desired vs the undesired isomer) of such a synthesis does not achieve at least ~98%. It is routine. But ask the people who design such syntheses if they know exactly the reasons why their reaction has succeeded, you may get a less precise answer (or just a lot of handwaving; chemists also like to wave their hands as well as argue).

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