This is a follow-up to comment posted by Ryan, who asked about isocyanide’s role (in the form of the anion of tosyl isocyanide, or TosMIC): “In Van Leusen, it (the isocyanide) acts as an electrophile”. The Wikipedia article (recently updated by myself) shows nucleophilic attack by an oxy-anion on the carbon of the C≡N group, with the isocyanide group acting as the acceptor of these electrons (in other words, the electrophile). In the form shown below, one negatively charged atom appears to be attacking another also carrying a negative charge. Surely this breaks the rules that like charges repel? So we shall investigate to see if this really happens.