Posts Tagged ‘HTML element’

Curating a nine year old journal FAIR data table.

Monday, May 29th, 2017
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As the Internet and its Web-components age, so early pages start to decay as technology moves on. A few posts ago, I talked about the maintenance of a relatively simple page first hosted some 21 years ago. In my notes on the curation, I wrote the phrase “Less successful was the attempt to include buttons which could be used to annotate the structures with highlights. These buttons no longer work and will have to be entirely replaced in the future at some stage.” Well, that time has now come, for a rather more crucial page associated with a journal article published more recently in 2009.[1]

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References

  1. H.S. Rzepa, "Wormholes in chemical space connecting torus knot and torus link π-electron density topologies", Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., vol. 11, pp. 1340-1345, 2009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b810301a

How to stop (some) acetals hydrolysing.

Thursday, November 12th, 2015
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Derek Lowe has a recent post entitled "Another Funny-Looking Structure Comes Through". He cites a recent medchem article[1] in which the following acetal sub-structure appears in a promising drug candidate (blue component below). His point is that orally taken drugs have to survive acid (green below) encountered in the stomach, and acetals are famously sensitive to hydrolysis (red below). But if X=NH2, compound "G-5555" is apparently stable to acids.[1] So I pose the question here; why? acetal This reminded me of some work we did a few years ago on herbicides containing such an acetal substructure, where one diastereoisomer was very unstable to hydrolysis (and hence did not have the lifetime required of a herbicide) whereas the other diastereomer was far less labile and hence more suitable.[2],[3] Crystal structures (below) revealed that the two C-O bond lengths of the labile form were very unequal in length (Δ0.043Å), whereas the stable form had two equal C-O lengths (1.408Å, Δ=0.0Å).

Click for 3D

2, but there is one example[cite]10.5517/CC71HVL[/cite],[cite]10.1107/S1600536803006287[/cite] of an orthoformate in which the group equivalent to X is protonated as Me2NH+. For this example, all three C-O lengths are shorter than even the hydrolytically stable herbicide above (1.405, 1.402, 1.396Å). The distribution for 6-ring acetals in general shows hot-spots at ~1.415Å and 1.43Å (but sadly it is not possible to e.g. use this database to correlate these lengths with the aqueous stability of the entries). OCO Is this tentative further evidence that a group X = NH2 positioned as above in an acetal can inhibit its hydrolysis? [caption id="attachment_14757" align="aligncenter" width="400"]HUZKEZ, click for 3D HUZKEZ, click for 3D

Time for calculations. A model (X=R=H) for the hydrolysis was constructed as above in which proton transfer from an acid (ethanoic) is achieved via a cyclic 8-ring transition state and which includes a continuum solvent field as ωB97XD/6-311G(d,p)/SCRF=water and one explicit water in the proton relay. The IRC looks thus: acetalH This shows that the first event is protonation of an oxygen, closely followed by cleavage of the associated C-O bond, and ending with deprotonation of the erstwhile water molecule. acetalha The value of ΔG298 is 38.2 kcal/mol (38.4 in relative total energy). Although rather high for a facile thermal reaction (perhaps the 8-ring TS is a bit too strained; possibly adding a second active water molecule to form a 10-ring might lead to a lower barrier?), we are more interested in the effect upon this barrier of group X (Table below).

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References

  1. C.O. Ndubaku, J.J. Crawford, J. Drobnick, I. Aliagas, D. Campbell, P. Dong, L.M. Dornan, S. Duron, J. Epler, L. Gazzard, C.E. Heise, K.P. Hoeflich, D. Jakubiak, H. La, W. Lee, B. Lin, J.P. Lyssikatos, J. Maksimoska, R. Marmorstein, L.J. Murray, T. O’Brien, A. Oh, S. Ramaswamy, W. Wang, X. Zhao, Y. Zhong, E. Blackwood, and J. Rudolph, "Design of Selective PAK1 Inhibitor G-5555: Improving Properties by Employing an Unorthodox Low-pKaPolar Moiety", ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters, vol. 6, pp. 1241-1246, 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsmedchemlett.5b00398
  2. P. Camilleri, D. Munro, K. Weaver, D.J. Williams, H.S. Rzepa, and A.M.Z. Slawin, "Isoxazolinyldioxepins. Part 1. Structure–reactivity studies of the hydrolysis of oxazolinyldioxepin derivatives", J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 2, pp. 1265-1269, 1989. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/P29890001265
  3. P. Camilleri, D. Munro, K. Weaver, D.J. Williams, H.S. Rzepa, and A.M.Z. Slawin, "Isoxazolinyldioxepins. Part 1. Structure–reactivity studies of the hydrolysis of oxazolinyldioxepin derivatives", J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 2, pp. 1929-1933, 1989. http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/P29890001929

Deviations from tetrahedral four-coordinate carbon: a statistical exploration.

Sunday, September 6th, 2015
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An article entitled "Four Decades of the Chemistry of Planar Hypercoordinate Compounds"[1] was recently reviewed by Steve Bacharach on his blog, where you can also see comments. Given the recent crystallographic themes here, I thought I might try a search of the CSD (Cambridge structure database) to see whether anything interesting might emerge for tetracoordinate carbon.

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References

  1. L. Yang, E. Ganz, Z. Chen, Z. Wang, and P.V.R. Schleyer, "Four Decades of the Chemistry of Planar Hypercoordinate Compounds", Angewandte Chemie International Edition, vol. 54, pp. 9468-9501, 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.201410407

Monastral: the colour of blue

Tuesday, March 8th, 2011
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The story of Monastral is not about a character in the Magic flute, but is a classic of chemical serendipity, collaboration between industry and university, theoretical influence, and of much else. Fortunately, much of that story is actually recorded on film (itself a unique archive dating from 1933 and being one of the  very first colour films in existence!). Patrick Linstead, a young chemist then (he eventually rose to become rector of Imperial College) tells the story himself here. It is well worth watching, if only for its innocent social commentary on the English class system (and an attitude to laboratory safety that should not be copied nowadays). Here I will comment only on its colour and its aromaticity.

Copper phthalocyanine

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